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Frameworks, guides and standards

Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework Attorney-General’s Department
Commonwealth Fraud Control Framework [PDF 1251KB]
August 2017
This framework outlines the Australian Government's requirements for fraud control, including that government entities put in place a comprehensive fraud control program that covers prevention, detection, investigation and reporting strategies. The three key documents in the Framework are the Fraud Rule, Fraud Policy and Fraud Guidance.
A Guide to Managing Fraud for Public Bodies International Public Sector Fraud Forum
A Guide to Managing Fraud for Public Bodies [PDF 2094KB]
February 2019
In 2018, representatives from key public bodies in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States came together to share their experiences and practices in fighting fraud against the public sector. As a result, the representatives came together to form the International Public Sector Fraud Forum. One of the results of this close working is this ‘Guide to Managing Fraud for Public Bodies’.
Lessons in Fraud Prevention, Detection and Recovery National Audit Office (UK)
Lessons in Fraud Prevention, Detection and Recovery
July 2017
The UK National Audit Office experts share their views about issues and common challenges facing government, what public sector leaders should look out for and how organisations have addressed issues. Their posts draw together threads from across our reports, share secrets spilled in events and reveal our experts’ expectations for the future.
The Anti-Fraud playbook USA Treasury and CFO Council (USA)
The Anti-Fraud playbook [PDF 4421KB]
October 2018
This playbook provides a four-phased approach with 16 plays drawn from successful practices from the federal government and private sector to help you combat the risk of fraud at your agency. Combating government fraud is an ongoing challenge, but this playbook will provide you with practical and actionable guidance to help you in your antifraud journey.
Fraud Control Arrangements (Performance Audit) Australian National Audit Office
Fraud Control Arrangements (Performance Audit)
October 2014
The audit objective was to examine the selected entities (Austrade, Comcare and the Department of Veteran’s Affairs) effectiveness in implementing entity-wide fraud control arrangements, including compliance with the requirements of the 2011 Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines, and the overall administration of the fraud control framework by the Attorney-General’s Department.
NDIS Fraud Control Program (Performance Audit) Australian National Audit Office
NDIS Fraud Control Program (Performance Audit)
June 2019
ANAO performance audits have shown that schemes similar to the NDIS have posed fraud risks and implementation challenges. The ANAO’s financial auditing of the NDIA has identified specific fraud risks relating to third party providers. There is also a risk that people committing fraud can move between government programs. These risks, along with the scale of the NDIA, which will receive an estimated $20.209 billion in 2019–20, led to the prioritisation of an audit of the NDIA’s fraud control program.
Serious and Organised Crime National Audit Office (UK)
Serious and Organised Crime
June 2019
Serious and organised crime is planned, coordinated and committed by people working individually, in groups, or as part of transnational networks. Criminals’ motivation is often financial gain but varies depending on the type of criminality. In this report, the UK National Audit Office examines the UK government’s strategic response to serious and organised crime, and the extent that the enablers to successful implementation of the 2018 strategy have been put in place.
Keeping it together: Systems and structures in organisational change Independent Commission Against Corruption (NSW)
Keeping it together: Systems and structures in organisational change
March 2017
The aim of this report is to alert public sector managers to the corruption pitfalls during and following organisational change and provide advice on minimising the corruption risks. The report presents case studies from relevant investigations conducted by the NSW Independent Commission Against Corruption.
Managing Conflicts of Interest Independent Commission Against Corruption (NSW)
Managing Conflicts of Interest
April 2019
This publication provides guidance in identifying and managing conflicts of interest. In simple terms, managing conflicts of interest is important because citizens rightly expect that public officials, or their close connections and associates, should never be in a position to obtain an undue personal benefit as a result of the public official doing their job.
8001-2008 Fraud and Corruption Control Standards [Pending Revision] Standards Australia
8001-2008 Fraud and Corruption Control Standards [Pending Revision]
March 2008
The objective of this standard is to provide an outline for a suggested approach to controlling the risk of fraud and corruption within a wide range of entities across all industry sectors and in government.
31000-2018 Risk Management–Guidelines Australian standard
31000-2018 Risk Management–Guidelines
October 2018
The objective of this standard is to provide guidelines on managing risk faced by all organisations. This standard also provides a common approach to managing any type of risk and is not industry or sector specific. This standard may be used throughout the life of the organisation and applied to any activity, including decision-making at all levels.
The Little Black Book of Scams The Australian Competition & Consumer Commission
The Little Black Book of Scams
2016
The best way to protect yourself is through awareness and education. This new edition of The Little Black Book of Scams is brought to you by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), the national consumer protection agency. The Little Black Book of Scams is recognised internationally as an important tool for consumers and small businesses to learn about scams.

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Surveys and environmental scans

Commonwealth Fraud Investigations 2016–17 Australian Institute of Criminology
Commonwealth Fraud Investigations 2016–17
July 2019
All non-corporate Commonwealth entities are required to provide the AIC with information concerning their experience of fraud during the preceding year and the fraud control measures that they employ. This report presents information gathered in respect of the 2016–17 financial year.
Estimating the cost to Australian Businesses of Identity crime and misuse Australian Institute of Criminology
Estimating the cost to Australian Businesses of Identity crime and misuse
December 2018
This study examined the economic scale of the problem of identity crime and misuse targeting businesses in Australia. Although little research has been conducted to assess the scale and cost of this type of crime, this study provides estimates of the direct and indirect costs borne by affected businesses.
Organised Crime in Australia Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission
Organised Crime in Australia
July 2018
The Organised Crime in Australia report provides the most comprehensive unclassified profile of organised crime in Australia. It includes characteristics of those involved, what drives them, activities they are involved in and the extent and impact of organised crime.
Serious Financial Crime in Australia 2017 Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission
Serious Financial Crime in Australia 2017
December 2017
The Serious Financial Crime in Australia 2017 report provides a national picture of serious financial crime currently impacting the Australian community. The report draws on the work of Serious Financial Crime Taskforce agencies, as well as intelligence and operational data held by a broad range of law enforcement, regulatory and government agencies.
Cross-Government Fraud Landscape Report 2018 UK Cabinet Office
Cross-Government Fraud Landscape Report 2018
December 2018
This report focuses on the public sector fraud landscape in central government and the levels of fraud and error loss outside of the tax and welfare system. This focuses on the 2016-17 loss trends and highlight the work that we are doing to find more fraud through raising standards and improving capability.
Report to the Nations 2018 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (USA)
Report to the Nations 2018 [PDF 25270KB]
April 2018
This report is the 10th edition of the largest global study on occupational fraud. It examines 2690 real cases of occupational fraud from 125 countries. The report explores the costs, schemes, victims and perpetrators of fraud.
National Fraud Initiative Report (April 2016 to March 2018) UK Cabinet Office
National Fraud Initiative Report (April 2016 to March 2018)
2018
The National Fraud Initiative, the Cabinet Office’s data matching service, has enabled participating organisations to prevent and detect over £300 million fraud and error in the period April 2016 to March 2018.
Anti-Fraud Technology Benchmarking Report Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (USA)
Anti-Fraud Technology Benchmarking Report
2019
Which technologies are most effective in helping organisations manage their fraud risk? How are organizations successfully harnessing the power of data and technology as part of their anti-fraud programs? The answers to these and other questions can be crucial in gaining management buy-in and successfully implementing new anti-fraud technologies. Consequently, the ACFE conducted a benchmarking study to help organizations understand what anti-fraud technologies their peers are using and to assist in guiding future adoption of anti-fraud technologies.
The Financial Cost of Fraud 2019 Crowe UK
The Financial Cost of Fraud 2019
July 2019
This report renews research first undertaken in 2009 and collates accurate, statistically valid information from around the world about the real financial cost of fraud and error. It reveals that fraud is costing the global economy £3.89 trillion, with losses rising by 56% in the past decade.
The report was developed in conjunction with the UK Centre for Counter Fraud Studies at the University of Portsmouth.
Profiles of the Fraudster: Technology and weak controls fuel fraud KPMG
Profiles of the Fraudster: Technology and weak controls fuel fraud
May 2016
This report profiles fraudsters around the world. KPMG completed analysis of 750 fraudsters across 81 countries who were investigated between March 2013 and August 2015.
Fraud Barometer: A Snapshot of Fraud in Australia October 2016 to September 2017 KPMG
Fraud Barometer: A Snapshot of Fraud in Australia October 2016 to September 2017
February 2018
KPMG’s Fraud Barometer shows a decline in reported fraud in Australia, but concerns remain on government vulnerability, cyber-crime and identify theft. Our infographic report, covering a 12-month period ending September 2017, summarises reported frauds exceeding $50,000 that have been brought before Australian courts.
15th Global Fraud Survey 2018 [Topic: Compliance] EY
15th Global Fraud Survey 2018 [Topic: Compliance] [PDF 3972KB]
June 2019
Between October 2017 and February 2018, EY interviewed 2550 executives from 55 countries and territories. The interviews show that fraud and corruption in business is not going away. We used the results to understand whether existing fraud prevention efforts by management and increased government enforcement are effective enough to fight fraud and corruption.
Asia-Pacific Fraud Survey 2017: How overburdened compliance functions can respond in unethical times EY
Asia-Pacific Fraud Survey 2017: How overburdened compliance functions can respond in unethical times [PDF 1324KB]
June 2019
The EY survey highlights multiple ‘red flags’ indicating that organisations are in danger of letting fraud risk spiral out of control. The findings reveal that current compliance programs in the region are not yet resulting in ethical employee behaviour. Despite increased organisational efforts to combat fraud, bribery and corruption, significant numbers of the almost 1,700 employees surveyed believe a wide range of unethical behaviours are justified to help a business survive.
Fighting Fraud in the Public Sector IV PWC
Fighting Fraud in the Public Sector IV [PDF 975KB]
2016
The Global Economic Crime Survey has been conducted every two years since 1999 and in Australia since 2001. This report includes the results of PwC’s Global Economic Crime Survey 2016 as well as tools and techniques for assessing fraud risk. PwC’s analysis includes observations on detection, fraud risk assessment and cybercrime exposure, as well as insights from various Australian state anti-corruption agencies.
Pulling Fraud Out of the Shadows: Global Economic Crime and Fraud Survey 2018 PWC
Pulling Fraud Out of the Shadows: Global Economic Crime and Fraud Survey 2018 [PDF 2190KB]
2018
PwC’s 2018 Global Economic Crime and Fraud Survey shows that, while there is growing awareness of the perils of economic crime, too few companies are fully aware of the individual risks they face. This report sets out to plug that awareness gap. In it, we explore not only the visible fraud that companies say they are facing, but also the blind spots that stop them seeing the big picture – and what they can and should do about them.

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