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 The Scope of Judicial Review

Discussion Paper

2003

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CONTENTS

COVER PAGES
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SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW DISCUSSION PAPER EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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Structure of discussion paper

PART I - INTRODUCTION
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SECTION I
The Council
The project
Timing of the project 

SECTION II
What is judicial review?
Further aspects of judicial review
Judicial review at common law and under the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977
Grounds of review 

SECTION III
Limits on the scope of judicial review
Judicial limits
Legislative limits - the AD(JR) Act
Other ways in which judicial review has been legislatively limited
Legislative schemes with comprehensive alternative review schemes
Non-legislative means of limiting review - privatisation/outsourcing 

SECTION IV
Previous Council involvement in consideration of the scope of judicial review 

PART II - THE SIGNIFICANCE AND CONSTITUTIONAL SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
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SECTION I
The significance of judicial review
   An element of the rule of law
   An aid to accountability
   Consistency and precedent
   An individual right
   Previous Council consideration

SECTION II
The Constitution and the scope of judicial review
   Separation of powers
   The distinction between merits and judicial review
   Other constitutional limits on the scope of judicial review?

PART III - OTHER FACTORS RELEVANT TO THE SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
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INTRODUCTION
Reasons for limiting judicial review

SECTION I
The judicial perspective
   Justiciability
   Legislative decisions
   Polycentric decisions
   Deference

SECTION II
The executive perspective
Considerations raised in the context of the Council's first report
Other considerations in seeking to limit judicial review

SECTION III
The public perspective

PART IV - THE GROUNDS OF REVIEW AND THE SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
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Introduction

SECTION I
The grounds of review
   Review of facts
   Review of process

SECTION II
A closer look at certain grounds of review
    Unreasonableness
   Relevant/irrelevant considerations
   Error of law
   Jurisdictional error
   Procedural fairness (including probative evidence)

PART V - PROPOSED CONSIDERATIONS IN DEVELOPING A GUIDE TO THE SCOPE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
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SECTION I
Proposed considerations

SECTION II
Consistency/predictability
   A case study
   The migration experience
Abuse of review process
   Previous Council consideration
Resource-related issues
   The executive perspective
   The judicial perspective
   Previous Council consideration
   Contributing factors and responses

SECTION III
The nature of the decision
   Policy and policy decisions
   Decisions related to the administration of justice
   Decisions where there are ongoing relationships
   Legislative decisions
   Decisions made in urgent or emergency contexts

SECTION IV
Nature of the decision-maker
   Status of the decision-maker
   Expert decision-makers
   Outside contractors
   Government business enterprises
   Decisions by certain other government bodies

SECTION V
Other
   No impact upon final decision
   No injustice

PART VI - THE EXISTENCE OF ADEQUATE ALTERNATIVE REMEDIES
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Introduction

SECTION I
Two perspectives
   The executive perspective
   The judicial perspective

SECTION II
What is an adequate alternative remedy
   Nature of the review right
Adequate alternative remedy - two case studies

SECTION III
The grounds of review
   Error of law
   Procedural fairness
   Unreasonableness/irrelevant considerations etc

SECTION IV
Merits review
   The judicial perspective
   The executive perspective
   Previous Council consideration
   Concluding comments

PART VII - HOW MIGHT JUDICIAL REVIEW APPROPRIATELY BE LIMITED
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Introduction

SECTION I
The underlying constitutional framework
The uncertain effect of privative clauses
General principles relating to legislative removal of rights
Removal of rights and judicial review

SECTION II
The need for clarity and specificity
   The need for clarity
   The need for specificity

APPENDIX 1
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ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS (JUDICIAL REVIEW) ACT 1977

APPENDIX 2
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LEGISLATIVE LIMITATIONS ON REVIEW
Other ways in which judicial review may be limited

APPENDIX 3
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ALTERNATIVE REMEDIES
Two case studies
Taxation
   The review scheme
   Significance of the review scheme from the executive perspective
   Significance of the review scheme from the perspective of the taxpayer
Workplace Relations Appeal scheme
   The scheme
   Support for the scheme