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Chapter 10 - National Security and Criminal Justice - administered programs

 

National Security and Criminal Justice - administered programs

Program 1.6

National Security and Criminal Justice

Summary

In 2011-12, the department worked with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade to maintain Australia's engagement in the work of the International Criminal Court. This included participating in the tenth session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and in ongoing deliberations regarding the Court's budget, administration, activities and jurisdiction.

The department, together with the Australian Federal Police, works with Pacific island countries to improve the capacity of Pacific police organisations to promote community safety, stability and security. This is achieved through capacity building activities under the Pacific Police Development Program and working with Pacific island countries to improve police and criminal laws.

The Government's Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) program aims to reduce the risk of home-grown terrorism by strengthening Australia's resilience to radicalisation and helping individuals to disengage from violent extremist influences and beliefs. The department continues to work with Commonwealth and state and territory agencies to ensure a whole-of-government approach to CVE. In 2011-12 the department developed and progressed a range of intelligence-based projects aimed at identifying and addressing the processes that lead to violent extremism. The department also supports initiatives that form part of the Australian Government's broader social inclusion and national security agendas.

Major achievements

Natural Disaster Resilience Program

The Natural Disaster Resilience Program (NDRP) is administered under the National Partnership Agreement on Natural Disaster Resilience (NPA), which is managed under the Council of Australian Governments' Intergovernmental Agreement on Federal Financial Relations. The NPA was established to provide states and territories with ongoing certainty of funding to achieve mutually agreed strategic aims and objectives in the natural disaster management sector. It encourages partnerships and innovation in the way we collectively manage natural disasters and enables states and territories the flexibility to target funds towards areas of highest need based on their state-wide risk assessments.

The key aim of the NPA is to enhance Australia's resilience to natural disasters through mitigation works, measures and related activities that contribute to safer, sustainable communities that are better able to withstand the effects of disasters, including those impacts arising from climate change. The NPA is consistent with the Government's strategic priorities, including the National Disaster Resilience Framework and the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience (NSDR).

The NDRP was developed to reform the Government's approach to emergency management and to increase Australia's resilience to a range of disasters, including the expected increase in weather events resulting from the impact of climate change. Funding for projects is prioritised by states and territories in the context of their natural disaster risk priorities. This recognises that different jurisdictions have different priorities, and that these may change over time.

The current NPA is in its third year of implementation and is due to conclude end of June 2013. The department has commenced the process of consultations on a proposed second Agreement. A key deliverable under the current NPA was the requirement for states and territories to provide the department with state-wide natural disaster risk assessments by 31 December 2011 in accordance with relevant Australian standards. States and territories use information from the risk assessments to further inform the strategic direction of NDRP expenditure. At the 29 June 2012 Standing Council on Police and Emergency Management meeting, ministers endorsed states and territories publishing a public version of state-wide risk assessments prior to June 2013. Furthermore, agreement was made for states and territories to update their current state-wide risk assessments during the life of the next NPA.

National security exercises

In 2011-12, on behalf of the National Counter-Terrorism Committee (NCTC), the department provided funding to states and territories to conduct a series of drill-style exercises to test their counter-terrorism capabilities. These exercises are of significant value and test specific capabilities and arrangements down to the community and local government level. In addition to these tactically focused exercises, the department also coordinated a number of activities that provided the opportunity for engagement between jurisdictional and Australian Government agencies at various levels. An example was Exercise Hades 12, which aimed to test national and jurisdictional interoperability, capability and capacity to respond to a mass casualty incident. This exercise incorporated training components, discussion-based activities as well as the deployment of personnel, and resulted in the identification of a number of key findings that will inform future capability development.

The department is working to more closely align the exercise activities of the NCTC and the National Emergency Management Committee (NEMC). Both Committees have agreed to implement a more strategic approach to exercising and will develop three year programs that identify opportunities to collaborate not only with each other, but also with the Australian Health Protection Committee and the National Biosecurity Committee when appropriate.

Counter-terrorism

The National Security Capability Development Division (NSCDD) input focused on the NCTC including the NCTC Risk Framework, National Counter-Terrorism (NCT) Plan and NCT Handbook.

The department finalised a comprehensive review of the NCT Plan that sets out a high-level framework to prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from threats and acts of terrorism in Australia and its territories. The Plan will be published in 2012-13.

The department undertook regular updates to the NCT Handbook in 2011-12. The next major review of the Handbook is due in 2013-14.

The department continued to provide procurement support for a range of specialised equipment for the states and territories. This included the 'BearCat' armoured rescue vehicles. On 15 March 2012, the Attorney-General announced that New South Wales, Queensland and Tasmania would receive the Commonwealth-funded vehicles as part of a NCTC project. The vehicles are designed to help police deal with dangerous situations such as hostage incidents or acts of terrorism.

The purchase of the Commonwealth-funded vehicles reflects the close and collaborative relationship between the Commonwealth and the states in building Australia's robust counter-terrorism capability. The first 'BearCat' armoured rescue vehicles were supplied to the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory and South Australia in the second quarter of 2011.

Countering violent extremism to prevent terrorism

The Australian Government's CVE Program supports Australia's broader counter-terrorism efforts by addressing factors that make people vulnerable to extremist influences and recruitment by terrorists. The CVE Unit within the department is responsible for developing and managing the CVE program, and ensuring that Commonwealth and state and territory agencies support and contribute to a nationally-coordinated approach to countering violent extremism. The program also supports initiatives that form part of the Australian Government's broader social inclusion and national security agendas.

The department facilitates this whole-of-government approach to CVE through a Commonwealth-level stakeholder reference group established in 2011 to provide a consultative forum to discuss opportunities, risks and issues relating to the CVE program; and as the Co-Chair and Secretariat for the National Counter Terrorism Countering Violent Extremism Sub-Committee (CVESC).

In 2011-12 the CVESC funded CVE projects totalling $1.8 million in the areas of prison rehabilitation, community awareness training, education for government officials and communities, and CVE research. The Prisons Working Group, a sub-group of the CVESC, coordinated projects that support the disengagement and deradicalisation of individuals convicted of terrorism offences, and prevent the radicalisation of other inmates.

The CVESC also established a strategic reference group which commenced work on a gap analysis in order to create an enhanced understanding of Australian CVE activities and recommend future priorities for CVESC funded projects.

In 2011-12, the department undertook a range of projects aimed at identifying and addressing the processes that lead to violent extremism.

In April 2011, the CVE Unit commissioned a consultant to conduct market research on community perceptions of CVE. The research included qualitative developmental and quantitative benchmarking components in order to establish an understanding of the awareness, attitudes and likely responses to CVE activities. The final report was received in October 2011.

The former Attorney-General hosted two Community Engagement Forums, providing opportunities for engaging directly with community stakeholders on CVE. The forums emphasised the need to focus on building trust and understanding between community, law enforcement and security agencies.

In July 2011, the former Attorney-General awarded over $1.7 million to grant twenty recipients under the second round of the Building Community Resilience Grants (BCR) Program. Community organisations and academic institutions from New South Wales, Victoria, Western Australia, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory received funding for projects that actively address intolerant or extremist messages and discourage violent extremism. In February 2012, the Attorney-General announced a third round for the BCR grants program. Projects to be funded in this round of the BCR program will focus on empowering communities through education and capacity building to resist and challenge violent extremist influences.

In October 2011, the former Attorney-General launched the Resilient Communities website www.resilientcommunities.gov.au. This site provides a platform for sharing information with communities, encouraging non-violent expression of views and supporting efforts to reduce marginalisation. The website is also a mechanism for disseminating messages that challenge violent extremist ideologies including counter narratives and positive stories about community projects. As at 30 June 2012, there have been more than 8,800 visits to the website since it was launched, and communities have been active in contributing blog comments, news articles and event listings to the website.

The Australian CVE program is respected by our international counterparts and we are increasingly being asked to contribute to the knowledge base on countering violent extremism through international bodies such as the Global Counter Terrorism Forum. In May 2012, the Attorney-General signed a US-Australia Joint Statement on Countering Transnational Crime, Terrorism and Violent Extremism, affirming Australia's intention to expand our cooperation with the United States on countering violent extremism. We will continue to work with our international partners to share strategies, expertise and experience to enhance our domestic program.

Secure schools, safer suburbs and Proceeds of Crime Act programs

During 2011-12, the department made significant progress in implementing the Government's commitments to improving the security of local communities through the Safer Suburbs Program, helping those schools at risk of religiously, ethnically or racially motivated crime and violence to protect their students through the Secure Schools Program and assisting local communities with funding under the Proceeds of Crime Act.

Secure schools

During 2010, the Government committed an additional $15 million for a third round of funding for the Secure Schools Program, building on the $20 million awarded to schools in the first two rounds. The Minister for Home Affairs and Justice approved $10 million in funding for 32 schools in the latest funding round, with $5 million held over for a preschools funding round in 2012-13. A total of 101 projects at 69 schools across Australia (17 Jewish, 26 Islamic, 18 government and eight independent) have now been approved under the three funding rounds. Their security enhancement projects include installation of fences, closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras, access controls, alarm systems, bollards and lighting.

Safer suburbs

In 2010, the Government committed $5.42 million over three years (2010-2011 to 2012-13) to the Safer Suburbs Program to fund 43 new projects in communities around Australia for safety measures such as CCTV and lighting in crime hot-spots and diversionary and intervention activities for young people. The program builds upon the $15 million committed in 2007 to assist 21 communities. All 2007-funded projects have been completed and six of the 2010 projects have also concluded, with the remainder to be completed during 2012-13. Current highlights include a threepart project being undertaken by Townsville City Council that will support the installation of CCTV in Thuringowa, Riverway and other crime hot-spots; a night patrol pilot program to be run in conjunction with the Queensland Knockouts Indigenous Corporation and local Indigenous elders; and targeted activities for young people. In the City of Holdfast Bay in South Australia, street lighting and CCTV cameras will be installed around Glenelg, including additional street lighting in High Street, new CCTV at Colley Reserve and the rear of Glenelg Town Hall, and relocation of the CCTV at the taxi rank to improve coverage.

Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 section 298 funding programs

During 2011-12, the Government provided nearly $6 million in funding from the proceeds of crime for non-government organisations to support a range of crime prevention activities. These included:

  • funding for 16 Police and Community Youth Clubs and Blue Light organisations to undertake early intervention activities with young people in their communities ($1,895,362)
  • funding to assist 31 domestic violence service providers enhance the security of refuges ($1,026,085)
  • funding for 25 local councils to address the problem of graffiti crime in their communities ($2,971,970).

Funding of $1.5 million was also provided for Neighbourhood Watch Australasia to undertake a range of activities including establishing a national office, providing support for local activities and community recognition awards for volunteers.

International Criminal Court

The department continued to manage Australia's financial obligations to the International Criminal Court during the reporting year. The department arranged payment of Australia's assessed annual contribution to the Court, as well as voluntary contributions to the Court's Trust Fund for Victims and its Trust Fund for the Participation of Least Developed Countries in the Assembly of States Parties, as well as other contributions to initiatives supporting the work of the Court. In addition, the department continued to work with the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade to build and maintain Australia's relationship and engagement with the Court. The department actively participated in the tenth session of the Assembly of States Parties in December 2011.

Pacific Police Development program

The department's capacity building activities through the Pacific Police Development Program include assisting Pacific island countries to improve legislative and regulatory frameworks for criminal laws and policing, and enhancing the capacity of Pacific legal officers to progress legislative reform through a placement program in the department. The department works with the Australian Federal Police and partner countries to progress its activities.

Key achievements in 2011-12 included working with Solomon Islands in their review of police powers, the development of implementation plans to support new police legislation in Tuvalu and Kiribati, and providing Nauru with the first of three Draft Bills to reform the Nauru Criminal Code. Ongoing work includes assisting Cook Islands with the review and reform of the Crimes Act 1969, assisting Tuvalu and Kiribati with regulations under their police legislation, progressing work with Nauru on reforms to their Criminal Code, assisting Solomon Islands to review property offences, and working with Papua New Guinea to review and reform their narcotic drugs legislation.

Outlook at 30 June 2012

The department's national security outlook in 2012-13 includes:

  • continuing work with states and territories to make publicly available the state-wide natural disaster risk assessments, which are a requirement under the NPA
  • negotiation of a new NPA to commence in 2013-14
  • on behalf of the NCTC, reviewing processes and procedures to ensure a more strategic and holistic governance approach that supports improved prioritisation of NCTC capability development activity with a view to reviewing, refining and streamlining governance documentation, capability development cycles and the NCTC's Risk Management Framework.

In 2012-13 the key priorities for the Countering Violent Extremism program will be to administer the third round of the BCR grants program, empower communities to take a stronger role in preventing and responding to violent extremism, build a deeper knowledge of radicalisation in prisons and understand the internet's role in the radicalisation of individuals and its potential for countering violent extremism. During 2012-13 a robust evaluation of the CVE program will commence with the collection of baseline data against which the impact of activities under the CVE program can be measured for efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability.

In 2012-13, the department will continue to work collaboratively with other Australian Government agencies to support the International Criminal Court by fulfilling Australia's financial obligations and participating in deliberations regarding the Court's budget, administration, activities and jurisdiction. The department will also continue to support initiatives by the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court to enhance its effectiveness and efficiency.

The department will continue to work with Pacific island countries to strengthen legislative and regulatory frameworks for criminal law and policing and to improve the capacity of Pacific legal officers to address legislative reform through the Pacific Legal Policy Twinning Program.

Performance results

Table 10.1: Performance results, Program 1.6

Key performance indicators Results
Identifiable progress on legislative and operational initiatives undertaken with Pacific Island countries Substantially achieved

Comment: The department's work is ongoing and includes development and implementation of criminal and police legislative frameworks.

Fund targeted national and community crime prevention programs

Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 section
298 programs
Substantially achieved

Comment: Community crime prevention projects have been conducted in accordance with program guidelines and project funding agreements. The majority of projects are progressing in accordance with these requirements, however, a small number have experienced delays in delivering the required outcomes.
Prevention of terrorism through a national approach to countering
violent extremism
Achieved

Comment: The department continued to work closely with agencies at both the Commonwealth and jurisdictional levels to undertake a range of evidence-based projects aimed at identifying and addressing processes that lead to violent extremism.
Australia meets its financial obligations to the International Criminal Court and participates effectively in negotiations regarding its jurisdiction Achieved

Comment: During the reporting year, the department arranged payment of Australia's assessed annual contribution to the International Criminal Court. Australia also participated in the tenth session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in December 2011 and in ongoing deliberations regarding the Court's budget, administration activities and jurisdiction.
Achievement of priority disaster resilience initiatives identified by COAG and emergency management ministers Substantially achieved

Comment: This work includes improving the effectiveness of emergency warning systems, particularly the location-based mobile telephone emergency warning system enhancement. The Commonwealth continued to provide funding via the National Emergency Management Projects and providing funding to the National Aerial Fire Fighting Centre (NAFC).

 

Table 10.2: Administered items, Program 1.6

Administered Items Results
Countering Violent Extremism to Prevent Terrorism Achieved

Comment: In 2011-12, the department administered the second round of the Building Community Resilience Grants program. This enabled expenditure of $2.142 million in administered funds to support and build community capacity to resist violent extremist influences. A third round of the grants program was announced and applications for projects to be conducted in 2012-13 assessed. An additional $660,000 was allocated to the program from underspends in other administered programs.
Budget Price: $2.167 million Actual Price: $2.159 million
National Community Crime Prevention Program Substantially achieved

Comment: This program has concluded but one project funded under the program has yet to be completed. The program is expected to be finalised in 2012-13.
Budget Price: $0.143 million Actual Price: $0.107 million
Payments for membership of international bodies Achieved

Comment: Payments for Australia's membership of the Financial Action Task Force for 2012.
Budget Price: $0.106 million Actual Price: $0.106 million
Payments for grants to Australian organisations Substantially achieved

Comment: Funding for Crime Stoppers Australia Inc, Australian Bureau of Statistics and National Institute of Forensic Science.
Budget Price: $1.377 million Actual Price: $1.350 million
Safer Suburbs Program Substantially achieved

Comment: All 22 projects at 21 organisations of the 2007 program have been completed. Additional funding was committed in 2010 for 43 new projects, of which 37 are active and on track and six are completed.
Budget Price: $3.703 million Actual Price: $3.722 million
Secure Schools Program Substantially achieved

Comment: Thirty-two schools (six government and 26 non-government) were awarded funding of $10,000,206 in the third round of this program. Applications
for preschools have been received and successful applicants will be awarded funding in 2012-13.
Budget Price: $5.709 million Actual Price: $5.461 million
Australia's contribution to the International Criminal Court Achieved

Comment: Australia paid its assessed contribution of $3,878,760 (€3,137,529)
to the International Criminal Court in accordance with its obligations under the
Rome Statute.

 

In addition, Australia made voluntary contributions of

  • $140,329 (€115,000) to the ICC Trust Fund for Victims
  • $61,199 (€50,000) to the ICC Trust Fund for Least Developed Countries
  • $50,000 to the Coalition for the International Criminal Court (a partnership of non-governmental organisations that works closely with the Court)
  • $12,300 (€10,000) to the ICC Internships and Visiting Professional Programme, and
  • $6,150 (€5,000) to the International Criminal Law Network ICC Trial Competition.
Budget Price: $4.166 million Actual Price: $4.166 million
Pacific Police Development Achieved

Comment: The department's work is ongoing and includes continuing to support a number of Pacific Island countries to review, develop and strengthen their legal frameworks to combat crime and to reform domestic criminal and policing laws.
Budget Price: $0.279 million Actual Price: $0.235 million
Disaster Resilience Australia - Emergency Warning System Database Achieved

Comment: The department's work is ongoing and includes continuing to support the contract managers in hosting and managing the system. The underspend partially relates to a contingency for surge capacity that was not required to be utilised and lower than anticipated fees in relation to changes for the database.
Budget Price: $1.617 million Actual Price: $1.350 million
Disaster Resilience Australia Package Achieved

Comment: Twenty-seven initiatives were funded through the 2011-12 National Emergency Management Projects to enhance disaster resilience across Australia. These initiatives were focused on achieving national outcomes and efficiency; identifying and addressing significant national emergency management capability gaps/needs or enhancing current measures to address these gaps/needs; aligned with national priorities eg the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience; and delivering sustainable outcomes. Resultant initiatives were products of the strong and cooperative partnerships between the Commonwealth, state and territory governments, non-government organisations and the private sector.
Budget Price: $5.971 million Actual Price: $5.923 million
National Counter-terrorism Committee - special fund and operating expenses Achieved

Comment: The National Counter-Terrorism Committee administered fund is an annual appropriation to support agreed activities, including the partial funding of the Australian Secret Network. Expenditure from the administered fund is approved by the Committee and managed in accordance with the department's Chief Executive Instructions and the Committee's financial guidelines.

As part of the Australian Government's appropriation to the department for 2011-12, the National Counter-Terrorism Committee administered fund received $12.650 million, of which $7.150 million was allocated to the Committee's activities, $3.5 million for the ASNET secure communications network operations and $2 million to countering violent extremism activities. These funds were in addition to the $1.038 million appropriated specifically for drill-style exercises.
Budget Price: $12.650 million Actual Price: $12.417 million
Counter-terrorism exercises Achieved

Comment: A number of focused drill-style exercises were successfully held by the States and Territories and involved a range of Government departments and agencies. The exercises provided a framework for testing and evaluating elements of their counter-terrorism arrangements.
Budget Price: $1.038 million Actual Price: $1.038 million
National security public information campaign Achieved

Comment: The National Security Campaign ran a burst of five-week advertising from Sunday, 4 September 2011 to Saturday, 8 October 2011.
Budget Price: $0.530 million Actual Price: $0.512 million
National aerial fire fighting Achieved

 

Comment: The department worked with the National Aerial Fire Fighting Centre to provide an effective aerial fire fighting capability. The capability played an important role in flood and storm response and recovery in Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria and New South Wales.

Budget Price: $13.946 million Actual Price: $13.946 million
Special Appropriations Results
National Firearms Program Implementation Act 1996 Achieved

Comment: The program has been finalised; however the Act has yet to be repealed. The negative actual is due to a reimbursement of $645,276, and an accrual
reversal of $75,000.
Budget Price: $0.075 million Actual Price: - $0.720 million

 

Program 1.7

Australian Government Disaster Financial Support Payments

Summary

Australian Government Disaster Recovery Payment and Ex-Gratia assistance

In 2011-12, over $78 million was provided under the Australian Government Disaster Recovery Payment (AGDRP) for an immediate, one-off payment to individuals and families affected by major disasters throughout Australia. In total, 202 claims were granted to the value of approximately $232,000 to eligible New Zealand 'non-protected' Special Category Visa (SVC) (subclass 444) holders who had also been adversely affected by the disasters. These payments were delivered by the Department of Human Services.

Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements

The Natural Disaster Relief and Recovery Arrangements (NDRRA) were made available in response to forty-two natural disaster events across Australia during 2011-12. The Arrangements provide funding for disaster reconstruction and ensure communities have access to immediate relief and recovery assistance.

More than $2.9 billion was paid to the states and territories during the year under the NDRRA for costs associated with natural disaster relief and recovery. The 2011-2012 disaster season was defined by several severe flooding events - particularly in New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria - which affected large areas of each state. To assist with ongoing reconstruction and recovery effort associated with disasters in Queensland, including the 2010-11 floods and Tropical Cyclone Yasi, the Commonwealth made an advance payment of $1.9 billion to the Queensland Government under the NDRRA. Much of this funding will be used to restore and replace essential public infrastructure, which is a critical element of community recovery.

Performance results

Table 10.3: Administered Items, Program 1.7

Administered Items Results
Disaster Income Recovery Subsidy - Flooding and Severe weather Achieved

Comment: DIRS was not activated
Budget Price: NIL Actual Price: NIL
Ex gratia assistance -
New Zealand citizens
Achieved

Comment: More than 202 claims were granted
Budget Price: $0.150 million Actual Price: $0.181 million

 

Table 10.4: Special Appropriations, Program 1.7

Special Appropriations Results
Social Security (Administration)
Act 1999
Achieved

Comment: The Department activated the Australian Government Disaster Recovery Payment four times in three states. Over 64,000 claims were paid to assist individuals and families.
Budget Price: $85.500 million Actual Price: $79.879 million

 

1 Data for all services except Family Relationship Advice Line, Information and Advice component, Telephone and Online Dispute Resolution Service and Legal Advice Service include both registered and unregistered clients.

2 Attorney-General's Department-funded counselling is reported as part of the larger Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs-funded Family and Relationships Services

3 Data for calls for Family Relationship Advice Line, Information and Advice component, and Telephone and Online Dispute Resolution Service comprises calls answered by these services. Data for calls for Legal Advice Service comprises calls answered and calls made by this service. These divergent approaches in reporting are due to differences in the service models.


 

Our people

Evaluating the success of the Commonwealth Organised Crime Strategic Framework and the completion of the Commonwealth Organised Crime Response Plan

shaping organised crime policy

The Commonwealth Organised Crime Strategic Framework (OCSF) was
launched in November 2009 to coordinate a whole-of-government approach to combating organised crime. The Commonwealth Organised Crime Response Plan (OCRP) is a key component of the OCSF. The first OCRP, which addressed the three priority threats of money laundering, amphetamine-type stimulants and identity crime, was completed in December 2011.

Two and a half years on, both the OCSF and the OCRP have made a significant difference to how the Commonwealth combats organised crime. In particular, the OCSF and OCRP have led to the creation of new multi-agency approaches, such as the National Criminal Intelligence Fusion Capability and joint taskforces such as Operation Polaris that targeted organised crime on the waterfront. One significant new taskforce is the Criminal Assets Confiscation Taskforce, which has had a major impact on organised crime with almost $100 million worth of assets restrained in the 2011-12 financial year. Other achievements include the first National Threat Assessment on money laundering, and work to provide the private sector with access to the Document Verification System.

In early 2012, the effectiveness of the OCSF was evaluated, including through sixty in-depth interviews and a senior officers workshop. 'People were keen to participate and welcomed the opportunity to provide feedback', Adelle Low, Legal Officer, said.

The results of the evaluation were positive. Sixty-seven per cent of responses agreed or strongly agreed that activity under the OCSF had led to action against those involved in organised crime. Agencies also said the OCSF raised the profile of organised crime, improved cooperation and collaboration and led to greater use of the capabilities of agencies not traditionally considered law enforcement (such as the Australian Taxation Office and AUSTRAC).

'It will be really exciting to see how the evaluation of the OCSF shapes organised crime policy over the next two years', Stephen Kiley, Senior Legal Officer, said.